Biotechnology is the exploitation of biological processes for industrial and other purposes, especially the genetic manipulation of microorganisms for the production of antibiotics, hormones, etc. Below are top 15 examination question and answer on biotechnology examination.
What is an ethical concern regarding Genetic Engineering?
There are many ethical concerns regarding genetic engineering in plants, animals, and humans. One of the ethical concerns regarding genetically modified plants used for food is whether the nutritional value will be sacrificed in favor of a higher yield or drought resistantancy. Genetically modifying animals to produce larger quantities of meat is also in question as to the effects on the animals themselves. In human beings, many are concerned that the possibility of having special genetically altered babies could yield a type of ‘super baby’ with only preferred features.
What is the biggest cause of foodborne illness?
The biggest cause of foodborne illness is with the handling and preparation of your food. Foodborne illnesses, such as food poisoning or food infection, occur whenever your food becomes contaminated with disease-causing microorganisms. This can be in the form of bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. Not only does your food have to be grown or harvested, but it has to be processed and packaged depending on the type of food. Therefore, it passes through several different hands, leading to several opportunities for contamination.
There are many ways for foods to be contaminated by the people handling and preparing them.
- From human or animal wastes – in the soil for fruits and vegetables
- Not cooking meats long enough
- Not storing foods in the refrigerator quick enough
- Lack of cleanliness of utensils and cutting/cooking surfaces
- Poor personal hygiene – not washing your hands enough
Be careful in your selection and preparation of food to avoid contamination leading to foodborne illnesses.
How does the process of gel electrophoresis separate DNA fragments?
Gel electrophoresis is a method used for the separation and identification of DNA fragments that result from restriction enzyme digestion. Restriction enzyme digestion may be done to separate entire genes from an organism’s genomic DNA or from plasmid DNA for genetic engineering or research purposes.
As its name suggests, during gel electrophoresis, electric current passes through an agarose gel. The agarose gel is made with wells on one end in which DNA is loaded. The gel also contains ethidium bromide, which allows for the visualization of DNA. A marker consisting of DNA of known weight must be loaded into one of the wells.
Its phosphate groups make DNA negatively charged, and it will, therefore, move toward the positive electrode when an electric field is applied. DNA moves through the agarose gel at a rate that is proportional to its molecular weight. At the end of the procedure, all of the components of the originally loaded DNA sample will be separated according to their molecular weight.
The components of the originally loaded sample may then be identified by comparison to the DNA marker. At this point, DNA may even be extracted from the gel and purified for further use.
Biotechnology is the harnessing or manipulation of living things to develop new products and technologies for human use. Drug development, biofuel production, and modern agricultural practices all rely on biotechnology. Other applications include pollution control, sustainable waste management, and gene therapy.
Which protein creates DNA fragments with sticky ends?
Technically, restriction enzymes create DNA fragments with sticky ends. Certain restriction enzymes will leave blunt ends, like the SmaI enzyme. However, certain restriction enzymes will leave sticky ends. An example of a specific restriction enzyme that leaves sticky ends would be the EcoRI. The sticky end is actually an overhanging nucleotide left over from the splitting process that makes it easy for bonding to occur.
What could be achieved by DNA profiling using gel electrophoresis?
DNA profiling using gel electrophoresis can establish the relationship between two DNA samples.
DNA profiling, also known as DNA fingerprinting, is a method that allows for studying the characteristics of DNA. Each and every individual in this universe (except identical twins) has a different DNA profile. DNA profiling can be used to achieve:
1. Paternity and maternity testing: A certain part of the DNA of each and every individual matches exactly with his/her parents. DNA profiling involves matching this region between the subject and the parent using gel electrophoresis.
2. Identification of spots on a crime scene (forensic studies): If blood spots or any other biological material like hair, semen, skin, nails, etc. are found at a crime scene, then DNA profiling can be used to compare the DNA of these samples with the DNA of the suspect.
What process did Louis Pasteur develop to kill germs?
In the middle of the nineteenth century, French scientist Louis Pasteur developed a process for killing germs called pasteurization. Seeking a way to prevent wine and beer from spoiling, Pasteur discovered microscopic organisms converting the alcohol into acetic acid. This gave the spoiled beer and wine a distinct and distasteful vinegary taste. After performing a series of tests, Pasteur discovered heating and rapidly cooling the beverages killed the germs causing them to spoil. The process was later named after its inventor.
What is the enzymatic function of restriction enzymes?
Restriction enzymes are found in bacteria, digest DNA, and are also referred to as restriction endonuclease. Similar to enzymes that activate a specific type of reaction, restriction enzymes recognize a specific sequence of nucleotides and cut the DNA only at that site. These enzymes are most important in recombinant DNA technology and are utilized to combine DNA from different organisms to produce new genetic combinations.
What does GMO stand for?
GMO stands for genetically modified organism. It refers to the product of genetic engineering in which scientists modify the genes in certain organisms, often food. This can include adding, removing, or simply changing pieces of DNA in order to improve some aspect of the organism.
Seedless grapes are an example of a genetically modified food. Clearly, grapes occurring in nature have seeds, since they would otherwise not be able to reproduce. The seedless grapes that we buy in a grocery store have been modified for human convenience. Other examples of genetic modification are more controversial, particularly when they involve changing the DNA of animals to make them easier to mass-produce.
How do humans contribute to these excessive levels of phosphorus?
Humans contribute to excessive levels of phosphorus due to the fertilizer that we use in farming. Fertilizer contains huge quantities of phosphorus, which helps plants to grow very large, very quickly. However, this fertilizer doesn’t just affect potatoes or blackberries; other plant life responds to this phosphorus, sometimes dramatically. The fertilizer run-off from farms seeps into water systems, causing the plant life to grow and potentially destroy aquatic habitats.
Who received the Nobel prize for inventing PCR?
Kary Mullis won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1993 for his creation of the PCR technique. Mullis was born in Lenoir, North Carolina on December 28, 1944. He received his PhD in biochemistry from the University of California at Berkeley in 1973.
How do DNA fingerprints help police?
DNA fingerprints assist police due to their ability to identify individuals by their genetic markers. It is both a highly consistent and accurate form of detection, and it has revolutionized the way police investigate crimes, especially in cases of burglary, homicide, or sexual assault. Since its acceptance as evidence in the criminal court system, many convictions have been overturned due to its capacity for correctly identifying individuals. The Federal government also uses a large database called the Combined DNA Index System, or CODIS, to collect genetic information.
What is the molecular weight of meso-stilbene dibromide?
The molecular weight of meso-stilbene dibromide is 340.058 g/mol.
This is calculated using a periodic table and the molecular formula of the compound. To find the molecular weight you would find the mass of each element from the periodic table multiply the mass by the number of atoms of the element in the molecular formula. Repeat this process for each element in the compound and then add them all together. This is the molecular weight of the compound for 1 mole of the compound.
When did we start using Biotechnology?
Biotechnology has been used in one form or another since our early ancestors’ first domesticated crops
and livestock and discovered how to make beer and wine. The following biotechnology timeline link
demonstrates where biotechnology has come from and where it has taken us.
Why does biotechnology matter?
We may not realize it, but biotechnology is a huge part of our everyday life. From the clothes that we
wear and how we clean them, the food that we eat and where it comes from, the medicine and the fuel
that we use, biotechnology is there. Continued research and development in biotechnology will ensure
that we are better positioned to respond to upcoming challenges in society. Previous and current
research in biotechnology has played a role in creating the world that we live in today. Biotechnology is
important now and in the future and Canada will continue to be a leader in this. Here are just a few of
Frederick Banting and Charles Best discovered insulin as a treatment for diabetes
Canola was developed by Canadian plant breeders
Dr. Paul Hebert from the University of Guelph discovered a gene that would give scientists an easy label to distinguish an animal from a closely related species through a process called DNA
James E. Till and Ernest A. McCulloch from the University of Toronto discovered the hematopoietic
stem cell. This was the basis for bone marrow transplantation.
Dr. David Boocock at the University of Toronto developed a new process of producing biodiesel fromvegetable oil, agricultural seed oils, animal fats, grease and recycled cooking oils.
The Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre in British Columbia sequenced the genome of the
coronavirus, a key step in understanding the SARS virus.
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