According to CNN, the cause of Nigeria’s pollution problem is a complex story. The main cause of pollution in Nigeria is the excessive reliance on using solid fuels for cooking, traffic pollution from old vehicles and waste burning. Due to the epileptic power situation in the country, generator if often relied on for power supplies, the spew out noxious fumes in unventilated areas.
The level of pollution are increasing in Africa unfortunately due to rapid establishment of industries and economic development without the use of proper technology. Agriculture, telecoms and oil are all driving the economic growth of Nigeria racing them forward in the past decades, overtaking South Africa as the continent’s largest economy in 2014 at a certain environmental cost.
Though most people seem to naturally link air pollution challenges with the introduction industry revolution in the 60’s. One of the earliest pollutant observed in the air was possibly of natural origin. Long before human pollution, the atmosphere was polluted by smoke, Ash, forest fires, fumes, dews during dry season, sand and dust from windstorm in arid region.
In Nigeria, the federal government introduced a body called Environmental Protection Agency under Decree No. 58 of the 1988 constitution to investigate and study the environmental effect of any air pollutant released by stationary or moving source, that may adversely affect human health or the environment example is the indiscriminate burning of solid waste at open dumps. According to the body, air pollution be controlled with the minimization of the general and industrial waste.
Generally, we have two main types of pollution which are Air and Water.
Air pollution is the mixture of harmful substance to the atmosphere resulting in damage to human health, the environment and quality of life. In Nigeria air pollution which comprises of indoor and outdoor has become a public concern. The indoor pollution occur inside the house, office and schools while the outdoor occur outside the home. Example of indoor pollution are emission of Nitrogen oxide, and sulphur oxide in air-conditioned houses, gas stove and some volatile organic compounds like Alkanes and the material used in constructing the house.
While indoor pollution occur at homes, outdoor pollution occur in cities like Lagos, Port Harcourt Kano etc. where acid rain and ozone pollution results in environmental impact and affect human health unknowingly due to the establishment of cement factories cited in these cities, some outdoor pollution consist of natural contaminants such as pollen, fungi spores, smoke, dust particles from forest fires.
It is a known fact that all air contains natural contaminants fine particles and naturally occurring carbon monoxide emanating from the breakdown of methane hydrocarbon in the form of terpenes from the pine trees and methane from the anaerobic decomposition or organic matter.
Air pollution is also emitted from an uncontrolled dumping of solid waste which decomposed to a number of gases, that can be found in the exposed dumping solid waste, which include ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2) Carbon monoxide (CO), Hydrogen H2, Hydrogen Sulphide (H5S), Methane (CH4), Nitrogen (N2).
There are three major effect of air pollution in Nigeria, which include human, vegetable and material.
Effects on Human Health:
Air pollution affects the respiratory system in humans by diffusing carbon dioxide through the capillary wall into the alveolus while oxygen diffuses out of the alveolus into the blood cell.
The Effects on Material: Air pollution affect materials by deteriorating it when exposed to moisture, sunlight and temperature. These effects has been strongly been affiliated to air pollution.