What Are Organic Compounds

Methane molecule

Organic Compounds are compounds containing the carbon to hydrogen bond linkages, they are hydrocarbon molecules or compounds that contains predominantly carbon atom.

Organic compounds contain to a lesser extent the carbon to Nitrogen bond, carbon to sulphur and carbon to oxygen bond linkages. Examples include Pyridine, pyrrole, and thiophene molecules.Nevertheless, all organic compounds belongs to a particular homologous series.

Furthermore ,it has always been a problem to obtain accurate and  precise definition for Organic compounds , because and this is several scholars  thinks Organic compounds are compounds with C-C bond linkage, some belief  any hydrocarbon  compound which contain carbon atom specifically (C-) is an organic compound whereas  other form of
molecules or compound existing are not organic in nature. But the definition
outline here is as accurate as possible.

Organic compounds are totally different from inorganic compounds in the sense that
inorganic mineral elements are the major constituents of  inorganic compounds such as carbides, sulphites, sulphates, carbonates and oxides. The chemistry that deals with the science and all aspect of organic compounds is termed Organic chemistry. In a higher domain, we can talk about Organic synthesis, which deals with the methodology of their preparatio .  H-C-C-C-C-C-H

The term Organic chemistry originally meant the chemistry of compounds obtainable from plants and animals-living things or organisms. The reason for this belief was because it was believed and conceived that to produce organic compounds you need a vital force, which result to what we termed vitalism. The term Vitalism originated from the beginning of 1st century, and it was learned convincingly that almost all western alchemist believed in Vitalism.

Vitalism  is the theory which postulates that certain compounds could be synthesized only from their classical elements which are earth, water, air, fire.
  • Diversity of Organic compounds
Organic compounds are made up of various elements which constitute its basic configuration; they include Nitrogen, sulphur, oxygen, and halogens. Organic
compounds can be classified as Aliphatic, Aromatic, Heterocyclic, and/ or Alicyclic compounds. Note: All compounds in the universe identified as organic compounds must belong to this classes or should not be acknowledged or branded as organic in nature.
  • The Unique properties of Organic compounds

Covalent Nature:
Carbon atoms which are the well-known and understood to be the   kpim of organic compounds form stable covalent bonds with one another. A carbon-carbon single covalent bond has energy of 348 KJ/Mol. This energy actually indicates a strong bond and as a result most organic compounds forms a stable carbon-carbon bond.

Polarity and solubility of non-polar compounds:  Carbon to hydrogen bond
linkages are seemingly not polar like the organic carbon- carbon bonds. This is
as a result of the closeness or almost equal electronegativities of the two elements present in the molecule. Hydrogen is found in group 1 period 1 of the periodic table and has 1 valence electron, normally as a metal it should be donating electrons or protons but due to its duplet caped stability, it can’t, and thus it has to pair with the corresponding nonmetal.

From research most organic compounds are non-polar unless the compound consists of high electronegative elements in combination like chlorine, fluorine or groups like
the hydroxyl group.

As a result most organic molecules can’t form bonds with water molecules (H2O)
and are insoluble in water example Petrol, kerosene, and paraffin oil. But if
the organic compound in question contains polar functional group, hydrogen bond
will thus be formed in the polar groups and as a result will dissolve in polar
solvent like water. For example ethanol is a polar organic compound   with the hydroxyl
functional group and dissolves or ionizes completely in water.
 High Flammability:  Most organic compounds are flammable and burn exothermally in a plenteous supply of air to yield Carbon (IV) oxide and water. Thus most fuels such as
wood, petrol, coal, oil and natural gas are organic compounds and form a major source of heat energy and income.

Thermal instability: Almost all organic compounds are thermally unstable, they easily
decompose into simpler and smaller compounds when heated, usually with a little
application of heat energy (500 and above) they decompose.  But as it is, this
property is of great significance industrially, because the cracking of petroleum is easily achieved through this process.
Low melting and Boiling point: Organic compounds possess relatively weak intermolecular force of attraction between its surrounding molecules and as a result tends to have low melting and boiling point. From research most organic compounds especially
those with low molecular mass are volatile and tend to boil at a temperature
range of 200 – 300oC.

 Slower Reactivity:   When organic compounds are reacting, their reactions tend to be much slower when compared to ionic compounds in inorganic chemistry. They usually require high heating rate, much heat energy and sufficient catalyst application in order to speed up their reactions.

In conclusion, one element that has made the study of organic compounds feasible
and to a large extend achievable, is Carbon, an elements with atomic number 6
and mass number 12. These element has the ability to form long straight and branch chain molecules or compounds with its atom in the process of catenation. Such a unique form of a single element. Thus organic compounds  exist as a function of carbon uniqueness.