Adjuncts are used on brewhouse operations to increase extract yield and beer stability and possibly to reduce cost.
Adjuncts may also be used to create additional texture such as flavours or nutritional additives. Adjuncts are classified as “solid” such as
flakes, micronized or terrified grains pelleted wheat starch or “liquid” such as syrups.
In brewing operations, malt may be milled with the appropriate mash tun (solid) adjunct to produce grists of coarse, medium and the particle sizes. When hydrated with
brewing liquour, the malt fraction can usually provide an adequate filter bed
for a mixed wort selection.
Although some advantages are assigned to use of adjuncts in brewing, in terms of lower
cost, it is also known that unmalted cereal adjuncts can dilute wort proteins
proportionately thereby reducing & -amino nitrogen to levels which cannot
support expected growth and function of yeast during fermentation. The infusion mashing system was developed to process well modified malts at a relatively high mashing temperature (63 – 65°C).
Since about 70% of the &- amino nitrogen of brewers wort is produced during malting, inadequately low levels of &- amino nitrogen can be partly corrected in the multiple temperature decoction mashing system because of the low mashing in-temperature (<60°C).
This is difficult to correct in an single temperature infusion system of mashing where mashing on-temperature are usually higher than 63°C. Maize and rice are
popular adjuncts used on the production of lager beers and have a significant
effect on &- amino nitrogen level of brewers wort. However, the economic removal of
Some proteins and pentosans from wheat (brewing) flour has enable wheat starch to be economically attractive adjuncts.
CLASSIFICATION OF BREWING ADJUNCTS
Brewing Adjuncts can broadly be classified according to the physical form in which they are used into solid and liquid syrups.
They are either starchy adjuncts which need to be converted to simple sugars or solid sugar adjuncts which can be added after conversion.
Solid starchy adjuncts are often produced from cereals and used on the forms of grits, flour, flakes or purified starch and must be added before the mash tun (ie. The process of
combining a mixed mill grains typically malted barley with supplementary grain
such as sorghum, wheat etc. and heating mixture to convert the starch into
simple sugars which the yeast can use during fermentation.
Cereals with higher gelatinization temperature than the standard mashing temperature must be cooked in cereals cooker to gelatinase the starch before adding to the mash. Solid sugar adjuncts include granulated sugar
and glucose chips.
Liquid adjuncts are either sucrose syrups or syrups from grain (maize, wheat or rice) are added directly to wort kettle and therefore can be used to reduced loading on the mash and lauter tun (ie. The mash is separated into the clear liquid wort and the residual grain) and effectively increase the brehouse capacity.
Liquid adjuncts may be added after fermentation as primary sugars to give sweetness to
the beer for secondary fermentation as in cask or bottle conditioning (ie. The
steeping of a starch source in water and fermenting the resulting sweet liquid
Sources of starch adjunct (Solid)
Barley:Barley is used as an unsalted grain at up to 105 of the grist. It provides both
protein and carbohydrates to wort on the negative side of the cell-walls the
unmalted barley, contain high level of beta-glucose (groups of β – D glucose
polysaccharides naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals with differing
physiochemical properties dependent on source), impacts on wort viscosity and
(ie. Causes turbality) have problems on the bright beer. Barley is also used in the mash as roasted barley to provide colour to the beer.
Oats: Oats is used in oat meal stouts. Oat meal stout does not have taste of
oats. The smoothness of oat meal stout comes from the high content of proteins, gums, lipids impacted by the use of oats.
Corn: Corn is commonly used in the production of American style pale largers especially malt-liquor. It is generally used on the brewing of corn syrup and as such is highly fermentable.
Corn is cheaper than barley so it is used as cost effective and cost saving measures.
Rye: Rye is used in rye beers from America. Rye is difficult to brew with so most rye
beers only include a small amount of rye.
Rye provides a spicy flavor to beer. It absorbs large amount of water on the mash and contains high level of glucan.
Cassava: Cassava is an adjunct user in Africa as a wet cake or as a purified starch.
Rice: Rice is sometimes used on the production of pale – lager (A pale to golden colour beer) with a well attenuated body and a varying degree of noble hop bitterness.
Sorghum (Millet): it is used in Africa as a local ingredient saving expensive imported malt and developing the local agricultural sector. Sorghum has a high gelatinization temperature and is added to mash cooker to gelatinize the starch before adding to a mash-tun. It has been used over century as the main ingredient in many of the indigenous
traditional/African beers. Sorghum can be used in malted and unmalted form.
Wheat: Wheat is used in Germans and American wheat
beers in Lambic and other Belgian and English ales.Wheat lightens the body improves head
retention and provides a tart flavours.Wheat beers are often served with fruit syrups or slices of lemon.
Sugar adjuncts provide only carbohydrate and if used at high levels result in wort lacking in amino acids and this may lead to poor yeast growth causing tailing fermentation and poor yeast crops.
Caramel Syrup: It is used to provide colour to brews and can either be added on the wort kettle or at filteration when needed to correct low beer colour. This caramel is not sweet
and provides little or no fermentable extract.
Grain Syrup: This is made from corn, wheat, rice or sorghum and are normally added to the wort kettle during the boil.The carbohydrate profile of these syrups may be tailored to suit the brewers requirements and normally have a fermentability range between 70 – 100%. Typically these syrups are 74 – 80% extract
Sucrose: Extracted from sugar cane or from sugar beet.
Candi Sugar: This is a common ingredient in strong Belgian ales, where it increases the strength of the beer while keeping the body fairly light. Dark varieties of candi-sugars also affect the colour and flavor of the beer.
Honey: Honey is a primary fermentable in honey beer known as mead. It supplies a portion of sugars converted during fermentation and is used primarily for flavours.
Other brewing adjuncts are vegetable adjuncts which include:
Pumpkin Chile Pepper:This is used to flavor pale largers e.g Eske’s in Taos, New Mexico.
Scchuan Pepper:Great leap brewing, Beijing microbrewery uses Sichuan pepper in it’s honey Mablonde to attract Chinese drinkers.
OF BREWING WITH SOLID ADJUNCTS
Have high levels of unfermentable sugars and beta glucans that increases wort viscosity and improve stuck mashes.
Solid adjuncts improves good beer head retention.
Sorghum and maize adjunct releases high levels of FAN and peptode nitrogen in their extract.
Like other adjuncts corn lightens the colour and body of a beer and because it lowers the protein content, and to reduce chill haze.
Reduces can liberate it grown starch so that diastatic enzymes can break it down into simple sugars on the mash.
Solid adjuncts such as sorghum has short boiling time, fast-run-off, and highly nutritious wort.
The current pre-occupational with both beer quality and brewing cost will require effective control in selection, quality and cost of both malts and brewing adjuncts. Possible changes on brewing processes to accommodate less well processed raw materials will have to be equally successful in maintaining beer quality. Starch rich adjuncts will
continue to be essential in the production of grain-whisky, whiskeys and malt vinegars.
Cereals whose by-products yield the greatest added value will be best placed as the long
term adjuncts and brewing processes may be well-be tuned to accommodate their