All You Need to Know About ICT, Brief History, Advantage and Disadvantage

As ICT is becoming more and more part and parcel of teaching, it would be interesting to see how ICT has developed through the last decades. Before we proceed with the topic of the day, “All You Need to Know About ICT, Brief History, Advantage and Disadvantage”, let’s first tell the meaning of ICT.

ICT in it’s literal meaning is INFORMATION and COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY. This article aims at helping Nigerians and the world at large have a general idea of the history, Advantage and Disadvantage of ICT  from the invention of the first computer up to now. We will also try to peep  into the future to see how ICT will look like in the next few decades.

All You Need to Know About ICT, Brief History, Advantage and Disadvantage
All You Need to Know About ICT, Brief History, Advantage and Disadvantage

A brief history of ICT


The term “computer” comes from the Latin “computus” and “computare”. Both Latin words mean to determine by mathematical means or by numerical methods. The English verb “compute” has the same meaning.

Basically, a computer is a programmable electronic device that performs mathematical calculations and logical operations, especially one that can process, store and retrieve large amounts of information very quickly. Personal computers are also employed for manipulating text or graphics, accessing the Internet, or playing games or media.

The main components of a computer are:

  1. a Central Processing Unit (CPU),
  2. a monitor,
  3. a Keyboard,
  4. and a mouse.

Originally the first computers were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers. Later, computers have become smaller and much more powerful.

The Web

While many people use the terms Internet and the Web interchangeably, they are in fact not synonymous. The Internet is a huge network that connects millions of computers together worldwide. Computers in this network can communicate with any other computer as long as they are connected to the Internet. The Web or the World Wide Web (WWW), however, is a way of accessing information over the medium of the Internet. It is an information space or a model that is built on top of the Internet where documents and other web resources are identified by URLs (Uniform Resource Locator), informally termed a web address. This space is interlinked by hypertext links, and can be accessed via the Internet.

The future of ICT is promising. The web will develop even more possibilities.

This report will explain advantages and disadvantages of ICT (Information Communication Technology) in the business world and social live in society.

All You Need to Know About ICT, Brief History, Advantage and Disadvantage
All You Need to Know About ICT, Brief History, Advantage and Disadvantage

Advantages of ICT

There are advantages using Information Communication Technology:

  • Communication

Speed/time and money can be saved because it is much quicker to send/share information around. Communication is more efficient to contact either business partners or friends and family members all over the world. ICT expands availability for communications. Social network sites and Social media such as Skype allows making video-conference calls with immediate response. Messages can be send to numerous people/companies across distances. Lives have been affected by ICT in most positive way’s bringing families together across the world.

  • Cost effectiveness

Numerous offers from telecommunication companies and smart phones therefore making far cheaper than in the past. For business ICT saves incredible amount of money on business flights and accommodations. Only few years ago there was no way to send free message through to the phone, but now people uses social network for free communication e.g. Viber, Skype, Facebook. Saving time and money for petrol as people can go shopping from home through online shopping.

  • Greater availability

Websites are open for communication in every minute of the year. This means that a business can be open anytime anywhere giving a customer the capability to make purchase from different sites and different countries.

  • Bridging the cultural gap

Greater access to the ICT has helped to build the bridges between different cultures giving them opportunity to exchange views and ideas. Also, educate both sides of communication bridge thereby increasing awareness and reducing prejudice.

  • Creation of jobs

The best advantage of ICT has been a creation of new and interesting jobs in IT sectors. Computer programmers, web designers etc. have great employment opportunities created through the advancement of technology.

Disadvantages of ICT

  • Lack of Security/Privacy

Though IT may have changed and more convenient, it also brought along privacy and security issues. From email hacking, phone signal interception etc. people are worried that personal information may become public knowledge. IT keeps changing almost every day which means that the individuals must be up to date in IT to secure their jobs. There is also risk factors with the systems computer viruses, malware, spam, Trojans etc., attacking.

  • Social media

The network pages are open to everyone including teenagers and young children’s which can affect their mental and physical health by watching and playing violent games. They became addicted to the phones, iPod, gaming consoles forgetting about outside activities and communication in the society.

  • Cyber bulling

It is so easy now bullying and threatening others in social network pages that this has become much easier for internet users all over the world. They don’t realize what the consequences are to those reading/hearing unpleasant comments. In the recent past there have been so many investigation cases regarding cyber bullying with lethal consequences.


  • Reliance on technology

People don’t bother to read, calculate or write without computers anymore in same time losing abilities of hand writing (why write if can use spell-checker), calculate without calculator even for minor addition, reading books (why read if there so much information in internet).