Scientific theories On the orign of the universe

Scientific theories On the orign of the universe
The stay of  nature, origin and evolution of the
universe, test our confidence that we can understand nature.This seems to me like space In cosmology we
try to answer the big questions: how did the universe begin?

Those astronomers  finding answers to these questions is a tribute to human ingenuity.

The two main theories on the origin of the universe
are: the big bang theory and the steady state theory.
The Big Bang
The big bang theory suggests that the universe began
with an explosion, a big bang as a matter and every burst out of a highly
dense state and began the expansion we see continuing today. According to the
theory, the rapidly expanding matter cooled 10 to 20 year ago. The theory is
supported by the red shift of the more distant galaxies. The red shifts are due
to the recession of the galaxies than the universe is expanding uniformly. The
described by astronomer Edwin Hubble’s Law.
The Steady State
the steady state theory proposed that the universe
did not evolve, that it always had the same general properties. Stars and galaxies
might age and die, but new stars and new galaxies would be born to take their
places and thus preserve the general properties
One of the most distinctive features of the steady
state theory was caused by the expansion of the universe. As the universe
expands its average density should increase. The theory however held that
universe did not change, so it proposed that matter was created continuously to
maintain the density of the universe.
 The steady state theory proposed in 1948
by Hermann and Thomas Gold remained controversial although exciting idea in
cosmology until the late 1960s. By then, the primordial background radiation had
been widely accepted as evidence that a big bang occurred, and the steady state
theory was gradually abandoned.
The solar system is a big family, with the sun as
its head controlling a considerable number of celestial bodies, including nine
major planets, 44 natural satellites plus a significant swarm of asteroids,
comets and meteors. How does the sun get power over such a big group? Her power
lies I hers overwhelming portion (99.86 percent) in the total mass of the
system while all the other members share the remainder of only 0.005 percent.
As gravitation increases in proportion with mass, the sun, with its drawing
might, keep all the much smaller bodies circling round it following their respective
orbits; thus it acts the supreme commander in the whole system.

The solar system covers a very wide space. Taking
the orbit of the remotest major planet as the border of it, we can set the length
of the system’s diameter at approximately 12 billon kilometers. The comets
travel along orbits varying notably in range. If we include the space within
the reach of the biggest of such orbits in the solar system, the diameter will
be as long as 9,000 12,000 billion kilometers, through this space is not more than
a negligible part of the known universe, like a grain of sand in a desert
Now let us know the solar system’s major members.
The major planets are following the sequence
determined by their respective nearness to the sun. Mercury, Venus, the Earth,
Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. Mercury, the closest follower
of the sun, keeps an average distance of roughly 57.9 million kilometers, while
the corresponding figure relating to Pluto is 5.9 billion.
“Inferior planet” is a term applied to either Mercury
or Venus which remains closer to the sun than the earth and whose orbit lies
within the latter’s. The other six, more aloof from the sun and follow bigger
orbits, are referred to as superior planets. The orbits are all almost
regularly circular. If we take the planet’s respective properties into account,
we shall see that Mercury, Venus, the Earth, and Pluto are characterized by
their moderate size, smaller mass, high density, low rotational speed and
insignificant oblations but are outshone by the in density and rotational
Because of their proximity to both the sun an the earth,
five plants, i.e. Mercury, Venus, Mars Jupiter Saturn receive powerful sunlight
and thrown back large portions of it, so they are visible to the naked eye and
have long since been similar to us. Uranus, Neptune and Pluto had, however,
remained unknown to mankind until two centuries ago.
·Mercury the sun closest attendant: called
Chen in ancient Chinese astronomy, Mercury travels to the sun that immense
amount of solar light and heat is poured onto her raising the surface
temperature on the side facing the sun to 400 degrees centigrade at the
equator. On the other side, however the temperature falls to subzero 100 degrees
centigrade. The heat renders the existence of any water on the surface of her
impossible, leaving a very this atmosphere consisting of hydrogen and some
other elements.
 Like the moon
Mercury has a surface marked with ring-shaped mountain ranges embracing wide
basins and cut by cliffs as high as over 3,000 meters. A globe of high density,
she may have a big iron kernel and wear a shell of silicates.
Mercury is visible only at the horizon just before
sunrise or soon after sunset, on other occasions she is obscured by the
blinding of the sun so nearby.
  Venus, the brightest planet: Among the
heavenly bodies visible to the naked eye, Venus is the third brightest,
outshone only by the sun and the moon and is sometimes seen during daytime.
That was why a series of beautiful names were given t0o her since ancient times
by the Chinese. When she is the morning star, she is mentioned as Qiming, a
name corresponding to the western Lucifer. And 
the name Vesper referring to the same planet appearing in the evening has
its Chinese equivalent Chang’geng. In her conspicuousness originates the name
mingxing (Bright Star) while the title Taibai (Extreme Whiteness) has its roots
in her silvery rays. 
Sometimes at a distance of only 41 million
kilometers, Venus is then earth’s closet neighbor similar to her in mass and
size. Unlike all the other planets, she rotates from east to west; along her
orbit, but the rotational velocity is lower than that of her revolution. No
other planet rotates as low as she does.
Data collection by American and Russian
spacecraft lead to the conclusion that Venus has a thick atmosphere composed
mainly of carbon dioxide with inconsiderable amount of steam and carbon
monoxide. The lowest layer is formed by yellow clouds of sulphuric acide ducts.
Wrapped up in such an atmosphere of high density. Venus retains all the heart
she gets from the sun, so that the atmospheric temperature remains above 480
degrees centigrade, with little fluctuations between day and night.
The surface of Venus, where lofty
mountains, deep valleys, craters and tablelands have been identified, is
smoother than that of the moon, Mercury or Mars, with 60 percent of the total
area covered by plaints spread with dust.
·Mars, a planet bearing the closest
resemblance to our earth:
Mars is the first planet visited by
 a spacecraft. We now know she is enveloped
in an atmosphere of low density, which gives her the appearance of a red fiery
globe. The easily noticeable changes in her position in the sky won her the
ancient Chinese name Yinghuo (Deceiver).
Smaller than the earth,
Mars also has the seasons of the year. She wears white caps of ice on her
poles. The cap is bigger in winter as shrinks in summer. The composition of
Mercia atmosphere is chiefly carbon dioxide, supplemented by small portions of
nitrogen, argon and other gaseous elements and a negligible amount of vapour.
less favored benefactor of solar radiation, mars has lower atmospherical
temperature than what the earth enjoys. This and low atmospheric density are
responsible for the striking of variation of temperature between daytime and
night. The equatorial temperature, which rises to a maximum of 20 degrees
centigrade in the noon, drops down to 80 degrees below zero at night and a
wintry night at the South Pole, may register a minimum sub zero temperature of 139 degrees centigrade.
 Dust storms are frequently stirred up by winds at the speed of 8 meters a
second, equivalent to that of fresh gale on the earth.
  The bright regions on the surface of Mars,
amounting to 75 percent of the total area, are called  “continents” or “deserts”, while “maria” or “lacus”
refer to the dark parts. Rings structures, including   one with a diameter of 1,600 kilometers have
been found.
Sharing many common
properties with the earth, Mars draw scientists’ interest by the possible existence
there of human beings or other living creatures. No trace of life, however, has
been detected by the experiments and test made by space laboratories that
operated there.
·      Jupiter, giant among the plants: Four
features of Jupiter distinguish her from her partners: first, she is endowed
with the biggest size and mass, equaling to 1,300 and 317. 83 time those of the
earth respectively, with an equatorial radius 11.18 times that of our planet’s second,
she has the highest rotating velocity, which gives rise to powerful centrifugal
force that makes her an apparently oblate globe. Third, she is a body of
fluids, without a solid shell like the earth’s. The chief components of her
atmosphere are hydrogen and helium, and there are also small portions of
methane, ammonia and other elements. Finally, she has a large colony of
satellites, 16 which have now been discovered.
Jupiter’s telescopic image shows cloudy
stripes running alongside of the equator, resembling the fibers in wood. Most remarkable
of all is a big opal red spot to the south of her equator. Spaceship findings
identify it as a violently whirling mass of gases.
Temperature on Jupiter’s surface remains
low whether in daytime or at night (-1500C). She has, however, been found to be
a heat- generating planet.
the most beautiful planet:
Saturn shares some common features
with Jupiter. Second only to the latter in size, she is 760 times maintain a
low temperature (-1700C) over the surface. A mass of hydrogen and helium and
other gaseous matter, she is the only planet whose average density is lower
than that of water.  Light rings have
been discovered around three planets, i.e. Saturn, Jupiter and Uranus, but
Saturn had until recently been reputed as the only bearer of such a ring. First
observed in the 17th century, it is formed by solid particles flying
around the planet, reflecting the sun’s rays which gave it a particular
splendor. Jupiter’s ring is composed of black stones so dark as to be
telescope, , not to say the naked eye, because of its Sparsity and dimness.
Thus Saturn’s ring remains symbolic of her.
    Uranus, the planet that “lies” on her
orbital plane:
Uranus was discovered in March 13, 1781 by German astronomer
Fredrick William Herschel when he was looking at the constellating Gemini with
the telescopes built by him. Nineteen time as far of from the sun as the head
Uranus get the stars light and heat amounting to only 3.0 percent of what her
own planet receives and that is why she has a surface temperature of 210
degrees below zero centigrade. No reliable information about Uranu’s compostion
is yet available, but one hypothesis has it that she has a solid kernel and a
glacial mantle wrapped up in a thick atmosphere with hydrogen and helium as its
chief components.
The planet’s axis of rotation lies almost on the
same plane with her obit and for this reason she is traveling in a higlly
inclined posture. Rotating at considerable velocity. Uranus turns reversely
from east to west, the same ways as does Venus.
Neptune planet
discovered by computation:
four years before Neptune’s actual
discovery, John Couch Adams, a young Englishman studying at Cambridge, trying
to find the right answer to the question concerning Uranus orbit, which was
found to be in disagreement with theoretical predictions, made elaborate
calculations which led him to the belief of the existence of an unknown planet.
In 1845 he located her orbit by calculation. His work failed however. To draw
adequate respect. On September 23, 1846, Johann Gottfried Galle, director or
Berlin Observatory, using his telescope and basing on the calculation by a young
French named Urbain Le Verrier. Found the celestial body considered the last of
the planets totaling eight.
Far off from us, Neptune is invisible to the unaided
eyes, tough she is 57 times as big as the Earth in mass. A very low temperature
(- 230oC) over her results from the amount of solar heat it absorbs
just 0.1 percent as much as what we get. Latest researches have confirmed that
remote companion to the sun consists of a kernel about the size of the Earth
and an ice shell as thick as 8,000 kilometers. The atmosphere of high density
is composed mainly of hydrogen 
Pluto, winner of
many championships:
a long research project carried out by
Clyde William Toumbaugh, young American astronomer, led to his discovery on
January 21, 1930 of the 9th planet. Her remoteness from the sun is
responsible for the scarcity of light and heat reaching her (1/500 of what is
poured onto the Earth), and the effect is coldness (-240oC),
darkness and sepulchral silence suggestive of the palace of Pluto, the Hellenic
deity of the underworld. Thus she was named.
A planet unique in different respects, Pluto emerges
as the winner of a whole series of championships over all her partners. 
She is the smallest in size and mass. She has the
shortest equatorial radius. The least favoured recipient of solar light and heat,
she boasts the lowest surface temperature. Traveling along the longest orbit
with the highest elliptically, she rightfully claims the longest year. Among
other records she retains are the longest distance from the sun and the latest
date of discovery. We know very little about either Pluto’s surface of her
inner structure, just because she is too remote and dim to be easily
·      The Earth: Also
a member of the planetary club, the earth will be dealt with in a separate article.  Will a new 10th planet be discovered soon? This is a question to be answered by the